Glossary of Terms

  • Active Safety System: A product designed to monitor conditions both inside and outside of a vehicle for possible hazards and automatically intervene to with the goal to prevent potential collisions.
  • Automated Driving System (ADS): Software and hardware capable of performing dynamic driving tasks on a sustained basis. The system controls and combines tasks such as braking, throttle and steering functionality.
  • Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS): Emerging safety technology that uses ultrasonic, radar, laser, camera, thermal and infrared sensors to monitor the driving environment. Examples of ADAS features include automatic emergency braking, blind spot monitoring and lane departure warning.
  • Autonomous: Independent of the need for a human driver.
  • Conventional Driver: A driver who physically controls a vehicle’s operation through accelerating, steering, braking, gear selection and other activities.
  • Crash: An unintended and preventable event involving one or more vehicles that may result in fatality, injury and or property damage.
  • Driving Mode: A specific scenario with characteristic dynamic driving task requirements such as highway merging, high-speed cruising, low-speed traffic congestion and so on.
  • DSRC: Short for Dedicated Short-Range Communication, it is wireless technology that allows for data transmission from vehicle to vehicle or vehicle to infrastructure within an allotted distance.
  • Dynamic Driving Task (DDT): That which requires operational duties such as steering, braking, accelerating and monitoring the vehicle and road, as well as tactical duties such as responding to events, determining when to change lanes and when to use signals. This does not apply to strategic components of the driving task such as determining destinations and waypoints.
  • Highly Automated Vehicles (HAVs): Vehicles that include technology systems categorized as conditional, high and full automation in relation to SAE’s levels of driving automation (see section below).
  • Human-Machine Interface (HMI): The combination of hardware and software that allows a human to interact with a particular machine to perform a task related to driving.

    • Level 0 – No Driving Automation: The driver performs all the driving tasks. Human Role: Takes on all functions of the vehicle.
    • Level 1 – Driving Assistance: The driver is responsible for all core driving functions. Features such as adaptive cruise control or lane centering assist the driver. Human Role: Responsible for the core driving functions.
    • Level 2 – Partial Driving Automation: The driver conducts some parts of the driving task, such as steering acceleration and deceleration. Human Role: Responsibilities include monitoring the road and taking control with or without warning from the system.
    • Level 3 – Conditional Driving Automation:  The driver performs most driving functions and monitors the driving environment. May request the human driver to intervene. Human Role: Must be ready to take control and respond appropriately to the automated system’s request to intervene
    • Level 4 – High Driving Automation: The automated system conducts all driving tasks and monitors the driving environment. However, can only operate in certain environments and designed for specific situations, such as a define route shuttle. No steering wheel, pedals or shifting mechanisms required for a human driver. Human Role: The driver is present but does not need to take back control.
    • Level 5 – Full Driving Automation: The automated system conducts all the driving functions under all environments without a human driver. Human Role: Provides destination or navigational input but does not control the vehicle at any time.
  • Passive Safety System: Technology systems and devices designed to protect occupants during a crash.
  • Passenger: A user in a vehicle who has no role in the vehicle’s operation.
  • Remote Driver: A driver who is not seated in a position to manually exercise in-vehicle braking, accelerating, steering, and transmission gear selection input devices (if any) but is able to operate the vehicle.
  • Self-Driving: Technology that does not require a human vehicle in physical control of the vehicle at a given time.
  • Vehicle: A machine designed to provide conveyance on public streets, roads and highways.
  • Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication (V2V communication): Technology that allows vehicles to send messages to one another while in use. It uses a wireless transmission of data to communicate between vehicles.
  • Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication: Technology that allows vehicles to communicate with external systems such as buildings, streetlights, and traffic systems through wireless data transmission.
  • Vehicle-to-Pedestrian (V2P) communication: Technology that allows vehicles to recognize and respond to the presence of pedestrians so as to promote safety. Warning systems may be built into the vehicle and or be built into handheld devices for pedestrians to use.
  • Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) communication: Technology that allows vehicles to communicate with any items that could affect the vehicle. It consists of a combination of V2V, V2I and V2P technologies.

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